Introduction to Cancer

Cancer is not just one disease, but a group of more than hundred diseases in which a group of cells become abnormal, divide without control and invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood circulation or lymph system. The body is made up of many types of cells which are basic units of life and these cells grow and divide in a controlled way to keep the body healthy. When cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells in a programmed way; this process is called as apoptosis. However, sometimes this programmed process goes wrong. The genetic material (DNA) of a cell regulates the normal cell growth and division. If DNA become damaged or changed, producing mutations, cells do not die and cells keep dividing when the body does not need them, these extra cells form a mass of tissue which is called as tumor. Tumors are of two types; one is benign tumor, another one is malignant tumor. Benign tumors are not cancerous, they do not spread to other parts of the body but malignant tumors are cancerous, cells in these tumors can spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).

Principles of Surgical Oncology

Surgical oncology, as its name suggests, is the specific application of surgical principles to the oncology setting. These principles have been derived by adapting standard surgical approaches to the unique situations that arise when treating cancer patients.

The surgeon is often the first specialist to see the patient with a solid malignancy, and, in the course of therapy, he or she may be called upon to provide diagnostic, therapeutic, palliative, and supportive care. In each of these areas, guiding paradigms that are unique to surgical oncology are employed.

In addition, the surgical oncologist must be knowledgeable about all of the available surgical and adjuvant therapies, both standard and experimental, for a particular cancer.


Radiation Oncology

Radiation oncology is a medical specialty. The goal is to use irradiation to treat disease in the human body. A medical machine (linear accelerator), or a radioactive source is used to create irradiation. This irradiation is then sent to the human body using a variety of systems that ensure that the right amount reaches the right part of the body.

Solid Tumor Oncology

An abnormal mass of tissue that usually does not contain cysts or liquid areas. Solid tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Different types of solid tumors are named for the type of cells that form them. Examples of solid tumors are sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas. Leukemias (cancers of the blood) generally do not form solid tumors.

Gynecologic Oncology

Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancer of the female reproductive system, including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer. As specialists, they have extensive training in the diagnosis and treatment of these cancers. A gynecologic oncologist is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating cancers that are located on a woman’s reproductive organs.


Psycho-oncology is an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of physical, psychological, social, and behavioral aspects of the cancer experience for both patients and caregivers. Also known as Psychiatric Oncology or Psychosocial Oncology, researchers and practitioners in the field are concerned with aspects of individuals’ experience with cancer beyond medical treatment, and across the cancer trajectory, including at diagnosis, during treatment, transitioning to and throughout survivorship, and approaching the end-of-life.

Biomarkers of Oncology

A biomarker is a substance used as an indicator of biological state. Oncology biomarkers actually make their way into routine clinical use. These can be detected and measured in parts of the body like blood or tissue. Biomarkers can be specific cells, molecules, or genes, gene products, enzymes, or hormones.

Pediatric Haematology

If your child or teen has a blood disease or cancer, a pediatric hematologist/oncologist has the experience and qualifications to evaluate and treat your child or teen. The unique nature of care of children or teens with blood diseases and cancer is learned from advanced training and experience in practice. Pediatric hematologists/oncologists treat children and teens from birth through young adulthood.

Surgical Oncology

Our surgical oncology team includes several highly-qualified, experienced surgeons devoted to producing optimal outcomes for patients and advancing surgical management techniques for cancer. Many of our surgeons have trained or practiced at top international cancer hospitals and have obtained Board Certifications in the United States.

Cancer Genomics and Proteomics

Cancer Genomics & Proteomics (CGP) is an international online-only open access, peer reviewed bimonthly journal devoted to the rapid publication of original high quality articles and reviews on the applications of genomic and proteomic technology to experimental and clinical cancer research.

Cancer Science & Cancer Therapies

Cancer Science and technology is a study of cancer cells that causes tumor and technically the therapy is processed. This can be replaced by the normal tissue and circulates through other tissues which are called metastasis.

Cancer Therapies are those which are used to treat cancer through various methods. Few treatment procedures like surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy (including immunotherapy) can be used to treat cancer. The location of treatment of cancer depends on the type of tumor.

Cancer Stem Cells

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cancer cells (found within tumors or hematological cancers) that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types. Such cells are hypothesized to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors. Therefore, development of specific therapies targeted at CSCs holds hope for improvement of survival and quality of life of cancer patients, especially for patients with metastatic disease.

Recovery or Coping of Cancer Patients

Each person’s experience with cancer is different, and the feelings, emotions, and fears that you have are unique. The values you grew up with may affect how you think about and deal with cancer. Some people may feel they have to be strong and protect their friends and families. Others seek support from loved ones or other cancer survivors or turn to their faith to help them cope. Some seek help from counselors and others outside the family, while others don’t feel comfortable with this approach.

Cancer Vaccines & Immunotherapy

Cancer vaccines are not just a dream for the future: several FDA-approved vaccines are cancer prevention vaccines. The hepatitis Bvaccine and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines prevent infection with cancer-causing viruses.  By preventing the viruses from infecting body cells, these vaccines block the process that might eventually result in runaway cancer cell growth and damage to the body.

History & Etiology of cancer

The Etiology of cancer in children is multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors, in neonates, predisposing genetic factors frequently play an important role. An acquired or inherited abnormality of a cancer-predisposing gene that is critical during embryo-genesis underlies many cases of neonatal cancer. Malignant transformation of normal cells results from the activation or suppression of these cancer-predisposing genes. The retinoblastoma gene at 13q is an example of a constitutional chromosomal abnormality that results in a high risk of malignancy.

Advances in Cancer Research

Advances in Cancer Research (ACR) has covered a remarkable period of discovery that encompasses the beginning of the revolution in biology. Advances in Cancer Research (ACR) has covered a remarkable period of discovery that encompasses the beginning of the revolution in biology. The first ACR volume came out in the year that Watson and Crick reported on the central dogma of biology, the DNA double helix. In the first 100 volumes are found many contributions by some of those who helped shape the revolution and who made many of the remarkable discoveries in cancer research that have developed from it.

Types of Cancer

Cancer net offers individualized guides for more than 120 types of cancer and related hereditary syndromes. Each guide provides comprehensive, oncologist-approved information on: Introduction, Medical Illustrations, Risk Factors, Prevention, Symptoms & Signs, Diagnosis, Stages, Types of Treatment, About Clinical Trials, Latest Research, Coping with Treatment, Follow-Up Care, Survivorship, Questions to Ask the Health Care Team, and Additional Resources.